Transportation Demand Management (TDM) refers to various strategies aimed at increasing the efficient use of transportation systems. Benefits of TDM include reduction in road and parking congestion, pollution reduction, increase in transit ridership, and more efficient land use.
Numerous strategies can be used to influence travel decisions, including the following:
- Develop and implement guaranteed ride home programs
- Allow telecommuting
- Flex work hours
- Parking management, particularly pricing parking
- Traffic calming measures that improve the safety and comfort for non-automobile uses
- Create Transportation Management Associations
- Joint public/private sector implementation of TDM measures
- Marketing of TDM options, especially alternative commuting services
- TDM strategies are highly effective at reducing vehicle travel and encouraging use of alternative transportation modes. Due to the broad range of TDM strategies the effectiveness of the strategies varies significantly. Spears, Boarnet, and Handy provided a summary of employer-based reduction strategies that lower commute VMT between 1% and 6%. Similarly, they found that VMT declined between 5% and 12% due to voluntary travel behavior change programs, such as public information campaigns and marketing/outreach strategies (2014). Communications efforts include billboards on buses and in transit stations, targeted web advertising, employer-provided brochures and information packets, and other methods. These strategies and measures reduce the need for roadway capacity and parking facilities and provide incentives to businesses and consumers for shifting to public transportation.